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Supreme Court Strengthens Protection of “Confidential” Information Under FOIA

Since 1967, the Freedom of Information Act (“FOIA”) has provided the public the right to request access to records from any federal agency. Federal agencies are required to disclose any information requested under the FOIA unless it falls under one of nine statutory exemptions. FOIA Exemption 4 of the 5 U.S.C. §552(b)(4) prevents mandatory…

When is an FCM, CTA or Pool a Securities Broker-Dealer, an Investment Adviser or an Investment Company Under the Securities Laws?

Futures Commission Merchants (“FCMs”), Commodity Trading Advisers (“CTAs”), Commodity Pool Operators (“CPOs”) and commodity pools frequently deal with securities incidental to futures and futures activities. Considerable uncertainty exists as to when these securities activities trigger registration as a broker-dealer, investment adviser or investment company. These uncertainties have increased dramatically in the last…

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